History of DEXES

In 1994 the US Southern Command defined a requirement for a simulation system for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW), and asked Synectics Corporation to design and implement its first component, the Civil Affairs Module. This early model also included capabilites for regional Psychological Operations, and Public Health Operations. Since that time this simulation system has been upgraded to include Humanitarian/Disaster Relief components, and selected Peace Operations capabilities. Collectively, the entire package of interlocking models is known as DEXES.

The concept for DEXES grew out of discussions between Jaime Alfaro, Larry Blotzer, and Paul McDill of the J5 Planning and Simulation Office, and Dr. Ted Woodcock, Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University. Funding for the first two years of software development (1995-96) was provided by the Joint Staff, through a contract with Synectics Corporation. The project director was Dr. Ted Woodcock, and the technical representative at Southern Command was Sr. Jaime Alfaro. Funding for the second two years of software development (1997-98) was supported by the DoD Modern Aids to Planning Program (MAPP), under a contract with Computer Sciences Corp.

DEXES design and development were done by Dr. Loren Cobb, of Aetheling Consultants and the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, with programming assistance in later years (1998-99) from Ernie Zaloznik of Sytex and Mandy Parmer of Synectics Corp.

By virtue of its small size and streamlined design, DEXES can be rapidly deployed in either analytical or training contexts anywhere in the world, with minimal cost and support overhead. As of February 2007, the DEXES simulation package has been used in 24 international exercises, with one more planned:

  1. FU-SOUTHAM-95 Argentina: Civil Affairs
  2. FU-CENTAM-96 Honduras: Civil Affairs & PSYOPS
  3. FU-SOUTHAM-96 Uruguay: Civil Affairs & PSYOPS
  4. FA-HUM-97 El Salvador: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  5. FU-CENTAM-97 El Salvador: Peace Operations & Civil Affairs
  6. FU-SOUTHAM-97 Brazil: Peace Operations
  7. FA-HUM-98 Guatemala: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  8. FA-CENTAM-98 Guatemala: Peace Operations
  9. FU-SOUTHAM-98 Paraguay: Peace Operations
  10. PKO-SOUTH-99 Bolivia: Peace Operations
  11. FA-HUM-00 Dominican Republic: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  12. PKO-NORTH-00 Honduras: Peace Operations
  13. PKO-SOUTH-01 Ecuador: Peace Operations
  14. CRISIS-SEMINAR-01 Ecuador: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  15. BLUE-ADVANCE-02 Miami: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  16. FA-HUM-02 Honduras: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  17. PKO-NORTH-02 El Salvador: Peace Operations
  18. PKO-SOUTH-03 Argentina: Peace Operations
  19. FA-HUM-04 Panama: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  20. PKO-NORTH-04 Honduras: Peace Operations
  21. PKO-SOUTH-05 Brazil: Peace Operations
  22. FA-HUM-06 Honduras: Humanitarian Disaster Relief
  23. PKO-NORTH-06 Guatemala: Peace Operations
  24. CRISIS-MANAGEMENT-II-06 Argentina: Humanitarian Disaster Relief


PKO-SOUTH-07 Ecuador: Peace Operations

The DEXES family of causal models brings to the wargame environment a political / social / medical / cultural simulation of the effects of military, governmental, and NGO actions on a society in the aftermath of a major disaster or civil war. Equally important, the DEXES model shows the effects of failures to take action. The DEXES model of society is deliberately and realistically unstable, so that incorrect, omitted, or tardy actions on the part of the players can result in negative consequences, up to and including the sudden failure of the mission through societal collapse or the outbreak of civil war.

Author: Loren Cobb.
Created: September 1997.
Last revised: February 2007.